In recent years a number of non-lawyers have started businesses offering Medicaid planning services to seniors. While using one of these services may be cheaper than hiring a lawyer, the overall costs may be far greater.
If you use a non-lawyer to do Medicaid planning, the person offering services may not have any legal knowledge or training. Bad advice can lead seniors to purchase products or take actions that won’t help them qualify for Medicaid and may actually make it more difficult. The consequences of taking bad advice can include the denial of benefits, a Medicaid penalty period, or tax liability.
As a result of problems that have arisen from non-lawyers offering Medicaid planning services, a few states (Florida, Ohio, New Jersey, and Tennessee) have issued regulations or guidelines providing that Medicaid planning by non-lawyers will be considered the unauthorized practice of law.
For example, in New Jersey, a non-lawyer may NOT provide legal advice on issues such as:
Medicaid eligibility, including provisions of wills and powers of attorney;
On the need for guardianships and the authority to transfer assets;
On nursing home laws;
On transfers of property;
On the impact of marriage and divorce; or
On estate administration and the elective share.
All of these issues can be important to a Medicaid applicant.
Creation of trusts or service contracts and the like.
Applying for Medicaid is a highly technical and complex process. A lawyer knowledgeable about Medicaid law can help applicants navigate this process. An attorney may be able to help your family find significant financial savings or better care for you or your loved one. This may involve the use of trusts, transfers of assets, purchase of annuities or increased income and resource allowances for the healthy spouse.
Although a morbid topic, choosing an agent to control your funeral and disposition of your remains is an important decision to be made in your Will. In New Jersey, if you do not select an agent to control your funeral and disposition of your remains, the following people will have the legal authority to do so:
Majority of surviving adult children;
Majority of brothers and sisters;
Other next of kin based on their legal relationship to you.
While this may mirror what you want, in enough cases, it does not. In many families, for example, children do not get along or one child has not been in touch with the family in decades.
In one recent case decided in New Jersey (In the Matter of the Estate of Travers ), the decedent was unmarried and did not have children. His parents survived him but were divorced and did not agree on how to dispose of his remains. In this case, the Court decided which parent it felt was best able to articulate what the decedent would have wanted.
Any time the court is involved, however, costs escalate, issues take longer to resolve, and what you may have wanted to happen might not happen.
A durable power of attorney is an extremely important estate planning tool, even more important than a will in many cases. This crucial document allows a person you appoint — your “attorney-in-fact” or “agent” — to act in place of you — the “principal” — for financial purposes when and if you ever become incapacitated due to dementia or some other reason. The agent under the power of attorney can quickly step in and take care of your affairs.
But in order to execute a power of attorney and name an agent to stand in your shoes, you need to have capacity. Regrettably, many people delay completing this vital estate planning step until it’s too late and they no longer are legally capable of doing it.
What happens then? Without a durable power of attorney, no one can represent you unless a court appoints a conservator or guardian. That court process takes time, costs money, and the judge may not choose the person you would prefer. In addition, under a guardianship or conservatorship, the representative must seek court permission to take planning steps that he or she could have implemented immediately under a durable power of attorney with gifting authority.
This is why it’s so important that you have a durable power of attorney in place before the capacity to execute the document is lost.
If you do not have someone you trust to appoint as your agent, it may be more appropriate to have the probate court looking over the shoulder of the person who is handling your affairs through a guardianship or conservatorship.
Because you need a third party to assess capacity and because you need to be certain that the formal legal requirements are followed, it can be risky to prepare and execute legal documents on your own without representation by an attorney. For assistance executing a durable power of attorney before it’s too late, contact the elder law and estate planning attorneys at Costanzo & Russom Law Group, LLC.
Your property passes to your intestate heirs. For most people, this is NOT the State. In New Jersey, it’s generally your closest living relatives. This might not be who you want to receive your assets (Do you have a blended family? Estranged child? Prefer to benefit someone else? Want to benefit a charity?);
Your next of kin will have to agree on who will administer your Estate. The administrator must be bonded. A bond, in this context, is like an insurance policy that the individual will properly administer the Estate. Bond premiums are based on several factors, including the size of the Estate and the administrator’s credit. Bonds must be renewed while the Estate is open. The bond requirement can be waived in a Will. This alone usually saves your family more money than the cost of a Will;
You won’t have nominated guardians for your minor children. The court decides;
Minors receive their inheritances outright at eighteen (18).
Your loved ones must seek court authority to manage your affairs during your lifetime if something happens to you. This process, even when uncontested, typically costs around $5,000 between attorneys fees and court costs. It can take several months to finalize. Court permission/approval is required for many things thereafter;
You don’t get to choose who manages your affairs during your lifetime.